La revue Viandes et produits carnés

La revue française de la recherche en viandes et produits carnés  ISSN  2555-8560




Specificities of the evaluation of consciousness and unconsciousness according to slaughter method

It is essential to assess the state of unconsciousness or consciousness of animals during slaughter. These assessments take place after the application of a stunning technique until the end of bleeding and during direct bleeding without stunning, until the end of bleeding. The indicators used are essentially similar for the different methods. However, the indicators are not all verified at the same times and their interpretation is not the same for all the methods either. This review describes the different brain circuits controlling the indicators of consciousness and unconsciousness, their interpretation and how they can be used for different slaughter methods. It also describes certain physiological reactions as well as specific points of vigilance for the different slaughter methods.

Neurobiological and physiological aspects of the different slaughter techniques

Slaughter with and without stunning: consciousness and induction of unconsciousness (part 1).

Advances in slaughter practices are based on technical improvements but also on our understanding of the neurobiological principles and the physiological reactions caused by the various stunning techniques and bleeding. This review presents our current scientific knowledge, in particular relating to the brain structures involved in consciousness and the various neurobiological and physiological effects caused by stunning and bleeding. Picture-based illustrations of the brain's anatomy are presented to provide a better understanding of the effects of stunning on certain brain structures. This knowledge presented is used to explain phenomena and issues that can be observed in the field, such as the return of signs of consciousness or the presence of paddling or convulsions, in order to understand better the underlying mechanisms.

Blockchain technology in the beef breeding sector

The initial observation is that there is a loss of information, mainly due to insufficient collaboration between professionals of the beef industry, who only partially communicate traceability information amongst themselves. The result is a loss of information at each stage of the chain, and therefore a loss of added value for the product vis-à-vis the final consumer. This insufficient transparency does not create the conditions necessary to establish a relationship of trust with the final consumer who is obliged to “believe” the partial information communicated by the actor at the end of the chain (i.e. the distributor in most cases);
This article describes how blockchain technology can respond to this problematic. The principle is to establish a decentralized architecture associated with blockchain technology. Indeed, loss or falsification of information is technically impossible in a blockchain system with a satisfying level of decentralization. In practice, multiple entry points and an electronic signature system allow each actor of the chain to provide and certify information that he/she disposes of. The system allows actors to better guarantee the integrity of the data and their origin and thus to self-regulate. For example, a processor could directly access information coming from the farm, without having to go through an intermediate party such as the slaughterhouse. In addition, the blockchain makes it possible to move from a “declarative” system of information to a system of information “certified” by each link in the chain. At the end of the chain, the consumer can, thanks to a QR code, access different sources of complete and certified information provided directly by each of the actors of the chain, from the breeder to the final distributor via the slaughterhouse and the processor.

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