La "viande in vitro" : cultiver des cellules musculaires à destination alimentaire

For the past 20 years, researchers have been trying to produce, in the laboratory, cultures of animal cells for food consumption. "In vitro meat" is branded as a disruptive innovation addressing the problems of animal farming. Where does it come from and who promotes this project? What are the technical obstacles to industrial scale-up, the research strategies, and the challenges of bringing to market? This note provides some answers and takes stock of the situation of animal cells cultures for human consumption. The first section reviews the history of projects to replace livestock products with alternative proteins. The second shows how food tech took on the "in vitro meat" project, and underlines its current technical limits. Finally, the last section addresses the challenges of its marketing and integration into the food supply.