La revue Viandes et produits carnés

La revue française de la recherche en viandes et produits carnés  ISSN  2555-8560

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Specificities of the evaluation of consciousness and unconsciousness according to slaughter method

It is essential to assess the state of unconsciousness or consciousness of animals during slaughter. These assessments take place after the application of a stunning technique until the end of bleeding and during direct bleeding without stunning, until the end of bleeding. The indicators used are essentially similar for the different methods. However, the indicators are not all verified at the same times and their interpretation is not the same for all the methods either. This review describes the different brain circuits controlling the indicators of consciousness and unconsciousness, their interpretation and how they can be used for different slaughter methods. It also describes certain physiological reactions as well as specific points of vigilance for the different slaughter methods.

Neurobiological and physiological aspects of the different slaughter techniques

Slaughter with and without stunning: consciousness and induction of unconsciousness (part 1).

Advances in slaughter practices are based on technical improvements but also on our understanding of the neurobiological principles and the physiological reactions caused by the various stunning techniques and bleeding. This review presents our current scientific knowledge, in particular relating to the brain structures involved in consciousness and the various neurobiological and physiological effects caused by stunning and bleeding. Picture-based illustrations of the brain's anatomy are presented to provide a better understanding of the effects of stunning on certain brain structures. This knowledge presented is used to explain phenomena and issues that can be observed in the field, such as the return of signs of consciousness or the presence of paddling or convulsions, in order to understand better the underlying mechanisms.

Blockchain technology in the beef breeding sector

The initial observation is that there is a loss of information, mainly due to insufficient collaboration between professionals of the beef industry, who only partially communicate traceability information amongst themselves. The result is a loss of information at each stage of the chain, and therefore a loss of added value for the product vis-à-vis the final consumer. This insufficient transparency does not create the conditions necessary to establish a relationship of trust with the final consumer who is obliged to “believe” the partial information communicated by the actor at the end of the chain (i.e. the distributor in most cases);
This article describes how blockchain technology can respond to this problematic. The principle is to establish a decentralized architecture associated with blockchain technology. Indeed, loss or falsification of information is technically impossible in a blockchain system with a satisfying level of decentralization. In practice, multiple entry points and an electronic signature system allow each actor of the chain to provide and certify information that he/she disposes of. The system allows actors to better guarantee the integrity of the data and their origin and thus to self-regulate. For example, a processor could directly access information coming from the farm, without having to go through an intermediate party such as the slaughterhouse. In addition, the blockchain makes it possible to move from a “declarative” system of information to a system of information “certified” by each link in the chain. At the end of the chain, the consumer can, thanks to a QR code, access different sources of complete and certified information provided directly by each of the actors of the chain, from the breeder to the final distributor via the slaughterhouse and the processor.

Effect of thawing method on the quality of thawed camel meat compared to fresh meat

Dromedary meat is widely consumed in arid Tunisian regions. Freezing fresh meats is standard practice and is part of the preservation and storage habits of most households. This work aims to study the effect of thawing method on the quality of thawed camel meat compared to fresh meat. Four thigh muscle samples were taken to determine the pH, cooking loss, peroxide value and color of fresh meat (FM) and thawed meat. Four types of thawing were carried out: in the refrigerator (MR4 ° C), in the open air at room temperature (MA), in cold water (MCW) and in hot water (MHC). The results obtained from the physico-chemical composition showed variability between the different thawing methods. The thawing time for camel meat ranged from 250 minutes in meat at 4°C to 32 minutes in meat thawed in hot water. However, the pH values were lower in meat thawed in cold water (5.60) compared to other methods and fresh meat (6.59). Most of the results revealed that the best way to thaw red meat (camel) is meat thawed in cold water.

Agriculture, Livestock and the Anthropocene

How are we going to eat tomorrow and who will produce our food?

This question may seem preposterous for many Westerners who have access to abundant, varied food at moderate prices. An event of considerable magnitude weakens this ease of access as we have known it for 50 years: the Anthropocene. We have entered a new geological era that greatly destabilizes our agriculture and forces us to fundamentally reinvent the way our food systems work, from the production of raw materials to their consumption. This book offers an unprecedented framework of analysis which makes it possible to understand why the trajectory that we are currently pursuing in terms of agriculture and animal husbandry can in no way suit the very specific context of the Anthropocene. It also makes reform proposals to support the trajectory of regenerative agriculture and sustainable breeding.

What do the French think about cultured muscle cells to produce meat?

Opinions, perception and attitudes of French consumers regarding the new biotechnology aimed at producing meat from cultured muscle.

This research aimed to study consumer perception of “cultured meat”, which is the subject of scientific questions despite media enthusiasm. For this, an internet survey in French on Google Forms was distributed on social networks. The sampling of respondents, although very substantial (4,533 responses), slightly differs from the average characteristics of the French population by an over-representation of young people between 18 and 30 years of age (42.7%), of people familiar with the meat sector (28.0%) or scientists (52.6%). About 40 to 50% of the respondents believe that livestock face ethical and environmental issues. However, only 18% to 26% of them believe that “artificial meat” can solve these difficulties and a majority thinks that artificial meat will not be as healthy and tasty as conventional meat. In addition, between 41.5% and 66.7% of the respondents, according to different demographics, consider that “cultured meat” is an “absurd and/or disgusting” idea, 26.9% on average an “intriguing and/or funny” idea, and 18.7% a “promising and/or feasible” idea. On average, 91.7% of the respondents would not like to buy “artificial meat” at a higher price than conventional meat, with only 25.6% being ready to pay for it at the same price. Respondents who are unfamiliar with “artificial meat”, or young people (between 18 and 30 years of age) especially women, seem more favorable towards this biotechnology because of a greater sensitivity to ethical or environmental questions related to animal husbandry. On the contrary, older men (more than 51 years of age) are the most reluctant. Unlike in previous work, people who have heard of “artificial meat” do not seem to accept it more. In addition, meat professionals are generally strongly opposed to it. According to this survey, the “artificial meat” market would represent at best a niche market targeting about a fifth of the French population, while another fifth of the respondents believes that “artificial meat” has no future. About half of the respondents, however, consider this innovation to be “absurd and/or disgusting” rather than “intriguing and/or funny”, or, to a lower extent “promising and/or achievable”.

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