La revue Viandes et produits carnés

La revue française de la recherche en viandes et produits carnés  ISSN  2555-8560




How to meet the expectations of the "Egalim" law in the beef sector?

Just before January 1st, 2022, the date at which 50% of the products served in collective restaurants must be from sustainable and quality sectors, the New-Aquitaine region and the Direction Régionale de l’Agriculture et de l’Alimentation de Nouvelle-Aquitaine (DRAAF NA) initiated a call-for-project aimed at supporting the development of local food circuits and food projects in the territories. It is within this context that a brand of meat “viande bovine locale” was born in Nouvelle-Aquitaine based on an important partnership between the different actors of the meat sector in the region. In parallel to this, a sampling of regional school restaurants was carried out and a hundred of them were surveyed at the end of 2019 and the beginning of 2020 in order to identify the questions of professionals with regards to the EGalim law, and to determine their expectations in terms of local beef. The professionals surveyed identified several obstacles to the application of the EGalim law in their establishments, in particular the additional costs involved or the constraints related to the logistical implementation. However, they indicated a desire to buy locally and/or to develop partnerships with local producers. They also expressed a strong interest in the development of local meat chains.

"Cellular Meat": Is it possible? Is it good? Is this acceptable?

Although there is a consensus about the challenges in agriculture, food and environment, the innovations developed to respond to them are varied. Among these, “cultured meat” is a subject that raises many questions to which this conference attempted to answer in part by combining the opinions of two start-ups in the sector and of French experts in agriculture, animal husbandry and human nutrition. While culture of muscle cells is a well-known technique, many technical and economic obstacles remain to be solved in order to move to large-scale production. Although the cost has been reduced and will continue to decrease, it is still high to be competitive. In addition, scientists from academic research are asking for precise information to share, in particular about the composition of culture media and of products, as well as production efficiency. Several opinions were expressed to stress that these products could not be called “meat” from a biological, semantic and legal point of view, as well as under Community regulations, they are considered as "novel foods". Regarding the environmental impact or the composition of the products, it is difficult to give precise answers because only a few academic research studies are available or conclusive. The debates focused on the available knowledge, reassuring hypotheses or concerns expressed by experts, in particular by comparison with other solutions suggested to feed humanity (such as reducing food waste or changing our agricultural practices and our eating habits). In this context, the issue of animal welfare is also central as well as the level of potential acceptance of "cultured meat" by consumers, which is still difficult to estimate.

La "viande in vitro" : cultiver des cellules musculaires à destination alimentaire

For the past 20 years, researchers have been trying to produce, in the laboratory, cultures of animal cells for food consumption. "In vitro meat" is branded as a disruptive innovation addressing the problems of animal farming. Where does it come from and who promotes this project? What are the technical obstacles to industrial scale-up, the research strategies, and the challenges of bringing to market? This note provides some answers and takes stock of the situation of animal cells cultures for human consumption. The first section reviews the history of projects to replace livestock products with alternative proteins. The second shows how food tech took on the "in vitro meat" project, and underlines its current technical limits. Finally, the last section addresses the challenges of its marketing and integration into the food supply.

BeefQ, a research project to improve the eating quality of beef

An online survey was conducted by the BeefQ project to gauge industry opinion on beef eating quality (EQ), current and potential future carcase valuation systems. The survey was conducted in Welsh and English between 24th January and 12th April 2021. A total of 165 responses were collected, 25 in Welsh and the remainder in English. The majority of respondents were based in Wales and England and 34% of them were farmers. Overall, respondents felt consumers were confident in the eating quality of Welsh beef, however, a quarter of them, including a quarter of farmer respondents, felt that consumers were not confident in the eating quality of Welsh beef. This suggests a proportion of those involved in the beef supply chain believe there is room to improve the beef eating experience for consumers. The majority of those directly involved in the production and processing of beef were of the opinion that the beef industry needs to evolve from the current EUROP beef valuation system and that there is an industry wide need to introduce a system of assessment and reward for beef eating quality. Views on how such a system should be implemented were more varied, with an extension to the current EUROP grading system being only slightly favoured over a replacement to the EUROP system. There was a preference for an eating quality assessment and reward system to be implemented at a UK national level, either by the levy bodies or an independent organisation. As to who would administer and fund the administration of an eating quality assessment and reward system, the levy bodies the most popular choice, or alternatively, administered by an independent organisation and funded by the levy bodies. The main concerns with respect to barriers to implementation of an eating quality assessment and reward system related to fear of change across the industry and supply chain issues such as lack of cooperation, fairness of cost/benefit within the supply chain and general lack of leadership to take change forward in the UK beef industry. Benefits highlighted included increased sales, improved value within the supply chain and reduced wastage through producing animals that meet consumers requirements.

Effect of thawing method on the microbiological quality of thawed camel meat compared to fresh meat

Freezing fresh meats is standard practice and is part of the preservation and storage habits of most households but this technique makes a favorable ground for bacterial proliferation. This work is aimed at studying the effect of the thawing method on the microbiological quality of thawed camel meat compared to fresh meat. Four thigh muscle samples were taken to enumerate aerobic mesophilic flora, fecal coliform, Staphyloccus aureus and Salmonella of fresh meat (FM) and thawed meat. Four types of thawing were carried out: in the refrigerator (MR4 ° C), in the open air at room temperature (MA), in cold water (MCW) and in hot water (MHC). The results obtained showed good microbiological quality between the different thawing methods that did not exceed the standards

Perception of artificial “meat” by French consumers according to their diet

The culture of muscle cells for food purposes, so-called artificial "meat" by its advocates, is announced by them as likely to meet the growing demand for animal protein without the disadvantages of animal husbandry, but it arouses divergent opinions among consumers. This study aims to understand the feelings of 118 consumers according to their diets. Regular meat consumers are more favorable to this technology than vegetarians and vegans whose convictions prevent them from tasting artificial "meat" and who perceive the consumption of this product as a step backwards. This technology raises questions about its possible undesirable health effects (41% of respondents). About 30% of respondents do not believe in the quality of this product. However, this product arouses curiosity, with the majority of respondents (80%) wanting to try this novel product, as long as there is an affordable selling price. Also, for 80% of the people questioned, this product will become widespread more or less quickly depending on the perceptions of consumers because the mentalities of the French are evolving. However, no consensus was reached for the product name "artificial meat". The semantic issue is important and the name of these new products must not mislead the consumer. Products derived from the culture of muscle cells are not perceived as meat.

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