La revue Viandes et produits carnés

La revue française de la recherche en viandes et produits carnés  ISSN  2555-8560

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Meat substitutes: formulations and comparative analysis. Part 2: micronutrient intakes

The nutritional quality of a food is not only assessed by its protein intake and the quality of protein intake, but also by its intake of trace elements. Animal products are the only sources of vitamin B12, apart from pharmaceutical food supplements. The amounts of other B vitamins are much greater in meat products: 4 to 6 times higher for vitamin B1, 2 to 20 times for vitamin B2, 5 to 30 times for vitamin B3, 2 to 12 times for vitamin B5, 2 to 100 times for vitamin B5, as much as 30 times for vitamin B6. Less markedly, the mineral content is also higher for cooked meat or cooked meat products compared to a ready-to-eat vegetable analogue: from 2 to 9 times more zinc in meat products than in analogues and vegetarian dish sources of protein, and up to 3 times more for iron. The quantity is not the only criterion to consider. The bioavailability of Iron and magnesium is lower in plant products. These minerals, however, are well assimilated during the consumption of meat products. The efficiency of iron absorption during the consumption of meat products is partly linked to the form of the ion (ferric or ferrous iron, or heme iron, i.e. associated with hemoglobin or myoglobin) and the absence of complexes such as phenols and phytate present in plants.

Meat substitutes: formulations and comparative analysis. Part 1: protein intake

The nutritional quality of animal products is often overlooked in our consumers' imaginations. Sustainability for example, must take into account sustainability for humans, starting with meeting their nutritional needs as naturally as possible. For starters, the protein intake, in quantity per 100 g of edible food (usually cooked), greatly exceeds those of vegan equivalents, whether they are meat analogues made from vegetable proteins or vegetarian dishes reputed to be sources of protein (chickpeas, hummus, lentils, tofu etc.). In addition, it is clear that animal products are protein sources of high nutritional quality (DIAAS  80) unlike vegetarian equivalents (DIAAS  80). Animal proteins are more easily digestible before the arrival of the food bolus in the large intestine - colon (The DIAAS Digestible Ileon Amino Acid Score is now the only protein quality criterion recognized by the FAO and WHO) and the intake of essential amino acids are more important. The combination of proteins from legumes and cereals, complementary in theory in their contributions of essential amino acids, is not satisfactory, however, for a quality supply for humans (DIAAS <100 very generally).

Consumer perceptions and the future of meat consumption

Based on two surveys evaluating participants' Willingness to Pay (WTP) for animal products and plant-based substitutes, this article studies the French consumers’ perceptions regarding meat consumption. The results from the first study showed that the WTPs for plant-based products are lower than those for animal products, but that information on the impact of products on human health and the environment tends to bring WTPs closer, suggesting possibilities of substitutions between the two types of products. These findings were confirmed by additional research from the other survey. Eventually, the WTPs for meats bearing the Label Rouge signal are higher than those of meats without labels, thus widening the gap with the WTPs for plant-based substitutes. From these WTPs, we show that possible price changes for meats and plant-based alternatives could lead to significant substitutions regarding the purchased quantities of products, even if meat would continue to get significant market shares. More precisely, the consumption of meat would not disappear, but would decrease with significant increase of meat prices. Its market share would depend on the evolution of product prices and the type of information given to consumers. In the event of sharp increases of meat prices, beef producers should turn to quality meats under labels leading to higher WTP. Various considerations regarding uncertainties concerning the future are developed at the end of the article.

Comparison of sausage formulations produced using Kilishi spices and ingredients

In Burkina Faso, butchers have many difficulties amongst which figure the high cost and unavailability on the local market of spices and ingredients for the fabrication of delicatessens. Most spices and ingredients that are used in the production of thin strips of seasoned dried meat (Kilishi) are available on the local market and are also used as seasoning for grilled meat that is highly appreciated by the population. Kilishi spices and ingredients could be used to produce delicatessens that respond to culinary and cultural habits of Burkinabe consumers at low cost. The current study is aimed at developing a technology for sausage production that incorporates Kilishi spices and ingredients. In the current study, six sausage formulations were produced. The microbiological, sensorial and physicochemical qualities of the sausages were evaluated. The results show that all six sausage formulations studied allowed products of good nutritional, microbiological and sensorial quality. Amongst the six formulations of sausages produced, the formulation 5 was the most appreciated by the sensorial analysis jury. The particularity of this formulation is that it contained all types of spices and ingredients usually used when producing Kilishi and the white beef stock used as a natural flavor enhancer was present in higher amounts than with the other formulations. However, the control formulation was also well appreciated by the jury but just after that of the formulation 5. It contained a large amount of spices and ingredients but also contained a flavor enhancer like monosodium glutamate (an industrial glutamate). The current study will contribute to the diversification of meat products in Burkina Faso.

Determinants of goat meat consumption in Algeria, the case of the Tizi-Ouzou region

Goat meat farming is widespread in the mountainous areas of Algeria. Even though it is conducted extensively, it is a significant source of red meat. The objective of this paper was to identify the factors that determine the consumption of goat meat. A survey was conducted on 620 people spread throughout the territory of the Tizi-Ouzou region which is mainly a rural area. The results show that goat meat is the red meat the least preferred among other meats. However, its followers are attracted by its dietary value and its low cholesterol level. Logistic modeling of the “Logit” type has made it possible to show that the consumption of goat meat is influenced by factors such as the following: Gender-Man; Ideas of the quality of goat meat; already having Tasted goat meat; Decision to buy meat / price and Availability of goat meat. However, the size of the household, area of residence, perception of goat meat and cheap meat are factors that do not seem to affect or not the consumption of goat meat.


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